Ayurveda Dosha Theory
The “Dosha” theory (Three Doshas) is one of the basic theory of Ayurveda. The word “Dosha” is a Sanskrit word whose expansion is “Dooshayati iti Dosha” i.e. That which get easily vitiated is “Dosha.”
Body constituents (tissues) are always in the process of metabolism which is a combination of deterioration (Catabolism) on one side and construction (Anabolism) on the other. Health is maintained by balancing these activities.
Metabolism is controlled by lot of chemical reactions, hormonal activity etc. When these systemic and natural functions get disturbed, it results in various types of diseases. As the basic functions of the body are innumerable, the number of diseases are also innumerable. Even Hippocrates, the father of Modern System of Medicines accepts the importance of “Dosha” Theory.
According to Indian philosophy the basic constituents of all beings are “Pancha Maha Bhootas.”
These Five Maha bhootas are:
- Prithvi (Earth)
- Ap (Water)
- Tejas (Fire)
- Vayu (Air)
- Akash (Ether)
The basic constituents of human body are also the same “Pancha Maha Bhootas.” Each and every cell, system and organ is made up of these constituents. The proportion of five “Pancha Maha Bhootas” is different in different systems and organs, based on their involvement, the qualities and functions are also different. The deficiency or excess of their involvement results in various diseases.
Ancient Ayurvedic Experts have conceived this “Pancha Maha Bhootas” theory into “Thri Dosha” theory for their easy diagnosis and treatment.
“Thri Doshas” are:
“Thri Doshas” are also made up of “Pancha Maha Bhootas”. The functions of “Thri Doshas” should be taken in a broad spectrum.
“Thri Doshas” decide the “Prakrithi” (body constitution) of a being. If “Vatha” is predominant it is known as “Vatha Prakrithi” (Vatha constitution). A “Vatha Prakrithi” person is prone to be afflicted by “Vatha diseases” if exposed to conducive surroundings and causes. Similarly for “Pittha Prakrithi” and “Kabha Prakrithi”. Brief explanation is given below.
All movements in the body is maintained by “Vatha dosha”. The expansion of the term “Vatha” in Sanskrit is “Tatra va gati Gandhanayoriti” i.e. all movements and catabolic activities of body are controlled by “Vatha”.
Finer movements like cell division, circulation etc. are maintained by “Vatha”. The predominant “Maha bhoota” involved in “Vatha dosha” is Vayu (Air) and Akash (Ether) .
The “Maha bhoota” predominance in “pittha” is Teja (Fire) . All the digestive activities of body is controlled by “Pitha.”
Digestive activity means not only the digestion of food occurring in the intestine but the hormonal, chemical and metabolic changes are attributed to “Pittha.” Body warmth, taste, vision, appetite, skin luster, intelligence, bravery – are all qualities attributed to “Pittha”
Predominant “maha bhootas” in “Kapha” are Prithvi (Earth) and Jal (Water). All the
anabolic activities of body are maintained by “Kapha.” It is contributing the nourishment and bulky form to the body.
By analyzing these symptoms the physician can come to a conclusion that this “Dosha” is vitiated and based on that treatment can be decided.
Due to various causes when the body functions become improper, it results in various diseases. Whole body functions are maintained and controlled by “thri doshas”. So when the “Doshas” get disturbed it results in symptoms like Vridhi(Increase),Â Kshayam (Decrease) or Prakopam (Vitiation of Doshas). An observing physician can diagnose the disease based on the symptoms exhibited by “Doshas” vitiation.
The causative factors of ailments are innumerable. They may be various types of micro organisms, allergens, surrounding factors, climatic conditions, systemic disorders etc. Whatever be the causative factors when the body is exposed to these, it results in the vitiation of “Doshas.”
The importance of this view is that the physician can come to a conclusion based on the involvement of “Doshas.” So an Ayurvedic Physician views the human being as a whole while diagnosing the disease and administering the treatment. This specific concept is lacking in modern system of medicine.
Many new diseases are arising and uncertainty prevails in the medical field while approaching these types of diseases. Majority of the common diseases are incurable, e.g. auto immune disorders, chronic skin diseases, arthritis, malignancy etc.
The allopathic system, medication of chronic diseases comprises steroids and immuno suppressants, which have various side effects. In this context Ayurvedic concepts are very important since they are time tested and free from side-effects and this is the reason that Ayurveda is being accepted all over the world.